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Surgeon General's Mental Health Report


Executive Summary




Table of Contents

Chapter 1
    Introduction and Themes

    Overarching Themes: Mental Health and Mental Illness: A Public Health Approach
    Mental Disorders are Disabling

    Mental Health and Mental Illness: Points on a Continuum
    Mind and Body are Inseparable
    The Roots of Stigma

    Separation of Treatment Symptoms

    Public Attitudes About Mental Illness: 1950s to 1990s

    Stigma and Seeking Help for Mental Disorders

    Stigma and Paying For Mental Disorder Treatment

    Reducing Stigma

    The Science Base of the Report

        Research Methods

        Levels of Evidence

    Overview of the Report's Chapters

Chapter 2
    The Fundamentals of Mental Health and Mental Illness

    The Neuroscience of Mental Health
        Complexity of the Brain I: Structural
        Complexity of the Brain II: Neurochemical
        Complexity of the Brain III: Plasticity
        Imaging the Brain
    Overview of Mental Illness

        Manifestations of Mental Illness
            Disturbance of Mood
            Disturbance of Cognition
            Other Symptoms
    Diagnosis of Mental Illness
    Epidemiology of Mental Illness
        Children and Adolecents
        Older Adults
        Future Directions for Epidemiology
        Costs of Mental Illness

    Overview of Etiology
        Biopsychosocial Model of Disease
        Understanding Correlation, Causation, and Consequences
        Biological Influences on Mental Health and Mental Illness
        The Genetics of Behavior and Mental Illness
        Infectious Influences
        Psychosocial Influences on Mental Health and Mental Illness
        Psychodynamic Theories
        Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
        The Integrative Science of Mental Illness and Health
    Overview of Development, Temperament, and Risk Factors
        Physical Development
        Theories of Psychological Development
        Piaget: Cognitive Development Theory
        Erik Erikson: Psychoanalytic Development Theory
        John Bowlby: Attachment Theory of Development
        Nature and Nurture: The Ultimate Synthesis
    Overview of Prevention
        Definitions of Prevention
        Risk Factors and Protective Factors
    Overview of Treatment
        Introduction to Range of Treatments
        Psychodynamic Therapy
        Behavioral Therapy
        Humanistic Therapy
        Pharmacological Therapies
        Mechanisms of Action
        Complementary and Alternative Treatment
        Issues in Treatment
        Placebo Response
        Benefits and Risks
        Gap Between Efficacy and Effectiveness
        Barriers to Seeking Help
    Overview of Mental Health Services
        Overall Patterns of Use
        History of Mental Health Services
    Overview of Cultural Diversity and Mental Health Services
        Introduction to Cultural Diversity and Demographics
        Coping Styles
        Family and Community as Resources
        Epidemiology and Utilization of Services
        African Americans
        Asian/Pacific Islanders
        Hispanic Americans 
        Barriers to the Receipt of Treatment
        Help-Seeking Behavior
        Clinician Bias
        Improving Treatment for Minority Groups