Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


1Still GF. Some abnormal psychical conditions in children: the Goulstonian lectures. Lancet, 1902;1:1008-1012.

2DSM-IV-TR workgroup. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

3Consensus Development Panel. Defined Diets and Childhood Hyperactivity. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Summary, Volume 4, Number 3, 1982.

4Wolraich M, Milich R, Stumbo P, Schultz F. The effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys. Pediatrics, 1985; 106; 657-682.

5Hoover DW, Milich R. Effects of sugar ingestion expectancies on mother-child interaction. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1994; 22; 501-515.

6Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Knee D, Tsuang MF. Family-genetic and psychosocial risk factors in DSM-III attention deficit disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1990; 29(4): 526-533.

7Faraone SV, Biederman J. Neurobiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 1998; 44; 951-958.

8The ADHD Molecular Genetics Network. Report from the third international meeting of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder molecular genetics network. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 2002, 114:272-277.

9Castellanos FX, Lee PP, Sharp W, Jeffries NO, Greenstein DK, Clasen LS, Blumenthal JD, James RS, Ebens CI, Walter JM, Zijdenbos A, Evans AC, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL. Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2002, 288:14:1740-1748.

10Wender PH. ADHD: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults. Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 9.

11Geller B, Williams M, Zimerman B, Frazier J, Beringer L, Warner KL. Prepubertal and early adolescent bipolarity differentiate from ADHD by manic symptoms, grandiose delusions, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1998, 51:81-91.

12The MTA Cooperative Group. A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Archives of General Psychiatry, 1999;56:1073-1086.

13Wilens TC, Faraone, SV, Biederman J, Gunawardene S. Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature. Pediatrics, 2003, 111:1:179-185.

14Barkley RA. Taking Charge of ADHD. New York: The Guilford Press, 2000, p. 21.

15U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. State Legislative Fact Sheet, April 2002.

16Silver LB. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adult life. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2000:9:3: 411-523.

17Wender PH. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity in adults. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1998; 59 (supplement 7):76-79.

18Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 2002:53:113-131.

19Attention Deficit Disorder in Adults. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 2002:19;5:3-6.


Resource Books
The following books were helpful resources in the writing of this document. Many other informative books can be found at any good bookstore, on a website that offers books for sale, or from the ADD Warehouse catalog (see next page).

Taking Charge of ADHD, by Russell A. Barkley, PhD. New York: The Guilford Press, 2000.

ADHD: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults, by Paul H. Wender, MD. Oxford University Press, 2002.

Straight Talk about Psychiatric Medications for Kids, by Timothy E. Wilens, MD. New York: The Guilford Press, 1999.


Support Groups and Organizations
Please visit the following link for more information about organizations that focus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.


This is a revision of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a brochure first printed in 1994 and reprinted in 1996. The revision is by Margaret Strock, staff member in the Office of Communications, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Scientific review was provided by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., Medical University of South Carolina; Peter A. Jensen, M.D., Columbia University; Edgardo Menvielle, M.D., and Benedetto Vitiello, M.D., staff members, NIMH. Editorial assistance was provided by Lisa Alberts and Constance Burr, Office of Communications, NIMH.

All material in this document is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from the Institute. Citation of the National Institute of Mental Health as the source is appreciated.

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